Parent hut for the exiled lem
The Lemkovskaya Usadba Museum in Zarichev opens the door to Lemki, a lost paradise – representatives of an ethnic group, which, due to the historical upheavals of the last century, has become a symbol of exiles from their native land.
We climb a mountain in a village where there is a blue, thatched hut. It is striking how long it is – according to tradition, lemki built residential and farm buildings (stable, shed) under one roof in a row. While getting to the threshold, the song “Smerekova hut on cool mountains” sounds in my thoughts. And although the hut is not Smerekova, and the mountain is not too steep, this song comes to the moment, because that’s how lemons come to this museum: like a parent’s hut. Like in his childhood – where there was a similar hut in a row covered with straw, where it smelled of smoke and mother’s food …
A Hut That Smells Of Childhood
Lemkovskaya manor- This hut was built in 1902, – the current mistress (you can not name otherwise) of this hut meets Mrs. Lyuba Pekar, the head of the Lemkovskaya manor ethnographic museum. – That’s what it says on the central beam. Zarichevsky landlord Kovach came here for a housewarming party with his family after Veil – then the custom ordered to move to a new hut precisely in the autumn period: when it is full in the barn and bins, the order in the yard and garden.
We go inside. It smells of smoke: Mrs. Lyuba was heating the stove before our arrival. There is a stove in the hut, but it needs firewood, and now for a museum with small incomes it is a big luxury. In addition, except to buy, they also need to chop, chop. A hut needs to be heated, because everything will be taken by mold, especially shirts and rushnyks, so the lady helps a director, a stove-potbelly stove.
– All that is here – simple furniture, household items, tools – everything was done by the owner. He was a carpenter, ”the director draws our attention.
HOW SMOKED LEMKI SERVED
The peculiarity of this hut as a traditional architectural structure is that all residential and utility rooms are lined up in a row. The hut is 22 meters long, 6 meters wide and has 4 meters of height.
Lemkovsky estate – This is a middle-house hut – it is “napivkurna”. The poor people had smoke spread over the ceiling, and then it went into the canopy, from the canopy to the attic, and shovdars, corned beef, and picnics hung in the attic (traditional home-made smoked pork products. – Ed.). There, all this meat went through the process of cold smoking.
And also – the grain was stored in bins also here in the attic. The smoke smoked it, and this saved the grain from the mice: they do not bite smoked.
Also smoke was smoking cigarettes – the so-called sheaves that cover the hut. Smoked straw became stronger, it stayed longer on the roof, rain dripped on it better, ”explains Lyubov Pekar.
The Lemkas had “napivkurnimi” and “snub” because the tax had to be paid for smoke. And in order not to pay it – because there wasn’t much of anything — people figured out how to use it for their own benefit.
But on the roof there was still a small hole: in one place two bales of straw were pulled out crosswise, this cross was considered a talisman, and at the same time served as a chimney.
EVERY WINDOW IN ITS PLACE
Lemkovsky estate In general, in the hut everything has its place and everything is equipped for something. For example, three windows – they are located exactly where the owners needed for the light to fall, ”says the manager. – One window is located opposite the table at which the family was eating. The second – near the stove, where the hostess was preparing to eat and doing other things. Third – opposite the small table, at which the master made.
Love Baker draws our attention to a small bench bench near the threshold. He asks why, they say, someone will guess? We express opinions that this is a stand, or that the hostess should sit near the stove while the food is cooking …
“This is a shop for the poor,” the director stops our speculation. – At that time, many lived in poverty, and people always took them in a hut, because the custom so ordered. This shop was specially so that the poor could rest on the road, drink water, eat what the mistress gave him. He was warmed, fed, watered, something else was collected in a bundle – then he was escorted from the hut with God.
But at the master’s table, where the family was eating, the poor have never been planted.
DOORS ON WHICH NEVER HAD A LOCK
I must also tell you that there were never castles in the huts of Lemkas.
– If the hostess left the house – somewhere, maybe wash the stream, took a broom and laid from one corner on the door frame to the second. A neighbor came, saw – and already knew that the mistress was somewhere nearby, you can wait or catch up (call) – that will come, ”the director says. – And if the hostess went away somewhere for a long time, for example, to sell milk, then she took a long pole, put it on the door frame in the same way – from corner to corner – and the neighbor, having come, saw this and already knew that it was possible not to call and do not wait: the hostess is somewhere far away.